Items tagged with physics

In the TransformTetrad command we can use some parameters, including nullrotationwithfixedl_. However, the nullrotationwithfixedl_ parameter requires another parameter E. How do I enter parameter E?




I would like to set a metric in its contravariant form before its covariant form but Maple does not do this operation.


I need hepl.  I work with the physics paсkage and I set:

Setup(mathematicalnotation = true)





U := 1+i*(1/f)*p[a](X)*Psigma[a]

H := v*U

DD[mu] := (d_[mu]+2*i*nu_5*KroneckerDelta[mu, 0])*Psigma[0]

And next:

Trace(DD[mu]*H*DD[mu]*H) or simplify(DD[mu]*H*DD[mu]*H)

Maple speaks:

Error, (in Physics:-Trace) invalid input: `union` received Physics:-d_[mu] = F1, which is not valid for its 1st argument

What I am doing wrong? (f, v, nu_5 is constans; a=1,2,3 and mu=0,1,2,3, Psigma[0] is unit matrix 2x2)


And if I write:


Maple doesn't understand that it equals six. 


I need yours hepl.  I work with the physics paсkage and I set:


Setup(mathematicalnotation = true)


Setup(Dgammarepresentation = standard)

Setup(spaceindices = uppercaselatin)

Define(m, m5, y, p, mm, pp)

I try to square the next value: 

W := Dgamma[mu]*d_[mu]+M+Psigma[A]*aa[A]-mm*Dgamma[0]-m5*Dgamma[0]*Dgamma[5]+I*Dgamma[5]*Psigma[B]*pp[B]+I*Dgamma[5]*y

("*" is multiplication)


And after that I want to simplify it:


I guess that matter is owing to d_[`~mu`]. If I remove this term:


And if i do:


Then next error emerges:

What is it?


I have to prove the following:

So I do not need the explicit derivative of the function Psi(r,t) . The metric is:


I am in the case of a collapsing star that emit radiation during the collapsing.  And I do not need to have a rotating black hole so that the reason I dont have dt*dr term in the metric, and I fix theta and phi.  So if you look in the Maple file attach to this post, I don't manage to obtain what I need to prove the equality between the two aspect of the same calculation.

Plese, take into account that I am sort of novice with the Physcis package and that the question is not part of an exam.

Thank you in advance for your help. 

Mario Lemelin




For the last couple of days I've been trying really hard to solve the linear PDE 

dR/dt = -dRdH/dqdp + dRdH/(dpdq) . Where R is a function R(t,q(t),p(t)) and H is the hamiltonian H=  p^2/2 +q^2 +2*q .

(dH/dp= p and dH/dq= -2q-2), q and p depends on the time t, and I'm supposed to solve the PDE and then plot the gaussian distribution (2D). 

I tried doing this:

pde := diff(R(t, q1(t), p1(t)), t) = -(diff(R(t, q(t), p(t)), q(t)))*p(t)+(diff(R(t, q(t), p(t)), p(t)))*(-2*q(t)-2)

But pdsolve(pde) gives me:  "Error, (in pdsolve/info) the name of the indeterminate function must be given". 

When I change q(t) to q and p(t) to p I get:

R(t, q, p) = _F1(p^2-2*q^2-4*q, -(1/2)*ln(sqrt(2)*q+p+sqrt(2))*sqrt(2)+t)

And then I'm lost. How do I solve this PDE in maple? 

Thankful for any help 



I need yours hepl.  I work with the physics paсkage and I set:


Setup(mathematicalnotation = true)


Setup(Dgammarepresentation = standard)

Setup(spaceindices = uppercaselatin)

Define(M, aa, mu, mu5, Pi, eta)

M_[mu, mu5] := Dgamma[mu]*d_[mu]+M+Psigma[A]*aa[A]-mu*Dgamma[0]-mu5*Dgamma[0]*Dgamma[5]+i*Dgamma[5]*Psigma[B]*Pi[B]+i*Dgamma[5]*eta

And next:

Dagger(M_[mu, mu5])

How is Maple explained that  





and so on?

Dear Friends, I work with physics paсkage. I have a quation. I don't understend how one works with metrics. For example, let:

Very good!

1) It doesn't work. Why? (I want exactly gamma_[A,B], rather than g_[A,B], because as i guess gamma_[A,B] has a signature [1,1,1] but g_[A,B] has a signature [-1,-1,-1])

 2) And how may I see what is matrices g_[A, B], gamma_[A, B] explicitly? That is I know how to see what is g_[mu, nu], for this one needs write "g_[];".  But how may I see g_[A, B] and gamma_[A, B] in explicitly forms?

3) Why command Trace(g_[mu, nu]))  does not work?"

Dear Friends, I work with physics paсkage. And I don't know how to simplify the next expression: Dgamma[mu]*a[mu]*Dgamma[nu]*a[nu]

(I want to obtain  the well-known result a2 )

The command "Simplify" doesn't work in this case.

Dear Friends, I work with physics paсkage. One allows to calculate in four dimensional space-time. But in addition, I need to calculate in three dimensional space. For example, I need t0 use the next scalar products: xAy and zawa  where A=0,1,2,3 and a=1,2,3. How may I do it?

Could you tell about manual (book) at maple which tells how to make calculations in quantum field theory (Grassmann algebra, a Lie algebra, producing functional, fermionic determinants) and high-temperature quantum field theory (partition functions, thermodynamic potentials)?

Hi everybody;

I have a problem with Physics[diff] command. When I run the following code, error messages appear where the Physics[diff] command exist. What is the source of error? How can I fix it?

Thanks in advance

Hi there,

I have a big polynomial expression involving powers of x and y, that comes from expanding a function in powers of x and y in polynomial form (I use series(convert(series(a,x=0,10),polynom),y=0,10) ). I want to multiply each of the terms by the factorial of the power of x and y it has. How can I do this?
I tried using Physics[Coefficient](a,x) but I get the error: it cannot compute the degree of the expression.
I tried using a double for with a double coeff to get each of the coefficients and the maybe be able to multiply them but I get the error "unable to compute coeff".

Is it because as expanding the series I have the term +O(y^11) that it cannot compute it?

I managed to substitute the x terms using subs(x^3=3!*x^3,x^5=5!*x^5,a). Obviously this is not very efficient since I need to write the substitution for each term, and since the ploynom is grouped in powers of y, this does not work for y (neither does algusbs).

[Edit 2]:

an example of it would be:

restart; z:=1/2*log((1+y+x)/(1+y-x)): a:=diff(z,x)*h: i:=int(series(convert(series(a,x=0,12),polynom),y=0,12),x);
with result 
i := -(1/6)*x^3-(1/8)*x^5-(11/112)*x^7-(31/384)*x^9-(193/2816)*x^11+(x+(2/3)*x^3+(7/10)*x^5+(41/56)*x^7+(109/144)*x^9+(1093/1408)*x^11)*y

And I want the coefficients for each x and y power to be multiplied by the factorial of those powers.


Thank you!

I am trying to solve a system of equations of motion of gravitational field and in this way, I deal with a second order differential equation containing Dirac delta function as follows:

Eq9 := -(l[f]^2/l[g]^2+2)*(diff(G(r, t), r, r)-2*(diff(G(r, t), r))/r)+l[f]^2*(diff(F(r, t), r, r)-2*(diff(F(r, t), r))/r)/l[g]^2+2*l[f]^2*(m^2*l[f]^2-3)*(G(r, t)/r^2-F(r, t)/r^2)/l[g]^2 = l[g]*E*exp(Pi*t*l[f]^2*(1-2*kappa)/l[g]^2)*Dirac(t)*Dirac(r)*Dirac(z)


Eq10 := diff(G(r, t), r, r)-2*(diff(G(r, t), r))/r-2*kappa*(diff(F(r, t), r, r)-2*(diff(F(r, t), r))/r)-(2*(m^2*l[f]^2-3))*(G(r, t)/r^2-F(r, t)/r^2) = l[g]*E*exp(Pi*t*l[f]^2*(1-2*kappa)/l[g]^2)*Dirac(t)*Dirac(r)*Dirac(z)

 want to solve these equations with MAPLE software symbolically.
Can anyone guide me in this way, please?

The material below was presented in the "Semantic Representation of Mathematical Knowledge Workshop", February 3-5, 2016 at the Fields Institute, University of Toronto. It shows the approach I used for “digitizing mathematical knowledge" regarding Differential Equations, Special Functions and Solutions to Einstein's equations. While for these areas using databases of information helps (for example textbooks frequently contain these sort of databases), these are areas that, at the same time, are very suitable for using algorithmic mathematical approaches, that result in much richer mathematics than what can be hard-coded into a database. The material also focuses on an interesting cherry-picked collection of Maple functionality, that I think is beautiful, not well know, and seldom focused inter-related as here.



Digitizing of special functions,

differential equations,

and solutions to Einstein’s equations

within a computer algebra system


Edgardo S. Cheb-Terrab

Physics, Differential Equations and Mathematical Functions, Maplesoft

Editor, Computer Physics Communications



Digitizing (old paradigm)



Big amounts of knowledge available to everybody in local machines or through the internet


Take advantage of basic computer functionality, like searching and editing



Digitizing (new paradigm)


By digitizing mathematical knowledge inside appropriate computational contexts that understand about the topics, one can use the digitized knowledge to automatically generate more and higher level knowledge




1) how to identify, test and organize the key blocks of information,


2) how to access it: the interface,


3) how to mathematically process it to automatically obtain more information on demand





                                           Three examples

Mathematical Functions


"Mathematical functions, are defined by algebraic expressions. So consider algebraic expressions in general ..."

The FunctionAdvisor (basic)


"Supporting information on definitions, identities, possible simplifications, integral forms, different types of series expansions, and mathematical properties in general"



General description





Differential equation representation for generic nonlinear algebraic expressions - their use


"Compute differential polynomial forms for arbitrary systems of non-polynomial equations ..."

The Differential Equations representing arbitrary algebraic expresssions


Deriving knowledge: ODE solving methods


Extending the mathematical language to include the inverse functions


Solving non-polynomial algebraic equations by solving polynomial differential equations





Branch Cuts of algebraic expressions


"Algebraically compute, and visualize, the branch cuts of arbitrary mathematical expressions"






Algebraic expresssions in terms of specified functions


"A conversion network for arbitrary mathematical expressions, to rewrite them in terms of different functions in flexible ways"



General description





Symbolic differentiation of algebraic expressions


"Perform symbolic differentiation by combining different algebraic techniques, including functions of symbolic sequences and Faà di Bruno's formula"






Ordinary Differential Equations


"Beyond the concept of a database, classify an arbitrary ODE and suggest solution methods for it"

General description







Exact Solutions to Einstein's equations



Lambda*g[mu, nu]+G[mu, nu] = 8*Pi*T[mu, nu]


"The authors of "Exact solutions toEinstein's equations" reviewed more than 4,000 papers containing solutions to Einstein’s equations in the general relativity literature, organized the whole material into chapters according to the physical properties of these solutions. These solutions are key in the area of general relativity, are now all digitized and become alive in a worksheet"

The ability to search the database according to the physical properties of the solutions, their classification, or just by parts of keywords (old paradigm) changes the game.

More important, within a computer algebra system this knowledge becomes alive (new paradigm).


The solutions are turned active by a simple call to one commend, called the g_  spacetime metric.


Everything else gets automatically derived and set on the fly ( Christoffel symbols  , Ricci  and Riemann  tensors orthonormal and null tetrads , etc.)


Almost all of the mathematical operations one can perform on these solutions are implemented as commands in the Physics  and DifferentialGeometry  packages.


All the mathematics within the Maple library are instantly ready to work with these solutions and derived mathematical objects.


Finally, in the Maple PDEtools package , we have all the mathematical tools to tackle the equivalence problem around these solutions.






Download:,    Digitizing_Mathematical_Information.pdf

Edgardo S. Cheb-Terrab
Physics, Differential Equations and Mathematical Functions, Maplesoft

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