# Question:Integrating Absolute Values

## Question:Integrating Absolute Values

Here's an interesting problem from a colleague. Consider the following two improper integrals; the only difference is the absolute value in the integrand. I think this is another instance in which Maple mis-applies the FTOC.

```restart;
with( IntegrationTools ):
#infolevel[all]:=3:
q := x*sin(1/x^2)-cos(1/x^2)/x;
/1 \
cos|--|
| 2|
/1 \      \x /
x sin|--| - -------
| 2|      x
\x /
I0 := Int( q, x=0..1 ):
I1 := Int( abs(q), x=0..1 ):```

Maple gives values for both integrals.

```value( I0 );
1
- sin(1)
2
value( I1 );
1
- sin(1)
2
```

It's a little odd that these two answers came out the same. It's easy to see that q does change signs infinitely often in [0,1]. A nice visualization of this can be obtained with:

```plot([1/x,abs(q)],x=0..1,y=0..50); ```

We can dig a little deeper by looking at the values of the definite integrals on [A,1] and taking a limit as A->0.

```int( q, x=A..1 );
1  2    /1 \   1
- - A  sin|--| + - sin(1)
2       | 2|   2
\A /
int(abs(q),x=A..1);
/ 2    /1 \      /1 \\
|A  sin|--| - cos|--||
|      | 2|      | 2||
1  2       |      \A /      \A /|    /1 \   1
- - A  signum|--------------------| sin|--| + - sin(1)
2          \         A          /    | 2|   2
\A /
```

This starts to show where Maple is missing some important information. More is seen by looking at the antiderivatives of q and abs(q):

```Q := int(q,x);
1  2    /1 \
- x  sin|--|
2       | 2|
\x /
Q2 := int( abs(q), x );
/ 2    /1 \      /1 \\
|x  sin|--| - cos|--||
|      | 2|      | 2||
1  2       |      \x /      \x /|    /1 \
- x  signum|--------------------| sin|--|
2          \         x          /    | 2|
\x /

plot( [q, Q], x=0..1, view=[DEFAULT,-5..5] ):

plot( [abs(q), Q2], x=0..1, view=[DEFAULT,-1..5] ); plot( [Q,Q2], x=0..0.6, thickness=[3,1], discont=true ); ```

Clearly, the two improper integrals at the start of this post should not have the same values.

Let's convert the problem to an improper integral on [1,infinity) by making a substitution x=1/u. When Maple makes this change of variable, it finds:

```I2 := Change( I1, x=1/u );
/infinity       / 2\      / 2\  2
|            -sin\u / + cos\u / u
- |          - --------------------- du
|                      3
/1                     u              ```

It's a little interesting that the absolute values have disappeared. (A plot quickly shows that this integrand is not always an increasing function.

```q2 := GetIntegrand( Combine(I2) );
/ 2\      / 2\  2
-sin\u / + cos\u / u
---------------------
3
u
plot( q2, u=1..50 ); ```

What gets really interesting is the value of this integral:

```value( I2 );
1
- - sin(1)
2       ```

Maple returns the same value for the definite integral with the correct (absolute value) in the integrand. Once again it is surprising that Maple reports the same values for these two integrals. But, the fact that these values are negative - even when the integrand is non-negative - is alarming.

It does appear that in some cases Maple is able to detect and correctly handle an infinite number of discontinuities in the antiderivative:

```int(abs(cos(v)/v),v=1..infinity);
/1   \
-Ci(1) + Ci|- Pi|
\2   /

/infinity                                                   \
| -----                                                     |
|  \                                                        |
|   )    /  /1           \     _k     /3           \     _k\|
+ |  /     |Ci|- Pi + Pi _k| (-1)   - Ci|- Pi + Pi _k| (-1)  ||
| -----  \  \2           /            \2           /       /|
\ _k = 0                                                    /
evalf( % );
Float(infinity)

``` ﻿