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Feynman Diagrams
The scattering matrix in coordinates and momentum representation


Mathematical methods for particle physics was one of the weak spots in the Physics package. There existed a FeynmanDiagrams command, but its capabilities were too minimal. People working in the area complained about that. These diagrams are the cornerstone of calculations in particle physics (collisions involving from the proton to the Higgs boson), for example at the CERN. As an introduction for people curious, not working in the area, see "Why Feynman Diagrams are so important".


This post is thus about a new development in Physics: a full rewriting of the FeynmanDiagrams command, now including a myriad of new capabilities (mainly a. b. and c. in the Introduction below), reversing the previous status of things entirely. This is work in collaboration with Davide Polvara from Durham University, Centre for Particle Theory.


The introduction to the presentation below is as brief as it can get, emphasizing the examples instead. This material is reproducible in Maple 2019.2 after installing the Physics Updates, v.598 or higher.




At the end it is attached the worksheet corresponding to this presentation, as well as the new FeynmanDiagrams help page with all the explanatory details.



A scattering matrix S relates the initial and final states, `#mfenced(mrow(mo("⁢"),mi("i"),mo("⁢")),open = "|",close = "⟩")` and `#mfenced(mrow(mo("⁢"),mi("f"),mo("⁢")),open = "|",close = "⟩")`, of an interacting system. In an 4-dimensional spacetime with coordinates X, S can be written as:

S = T(exp(i*`#mrow(mo("∫"),mi("L"),mo("⁡"),mfenced(mi("X")),mo("ⅆ"),msup(mi("X"),mn("4")))`))


where i is the imaginary unit  and L is the interaction Lagrangian, written in terms of quantum fields  depending on the spacetime coordinates  X. The T symbol means time-ordered. For the terminology used in this page, see for instance chapter IV, "The Scattering Matrix", of ref.[1].


This exponential can be expanded as

S = 1+S[1]+S[2]+S[3]+`...`



S[n] = `#mrow(mo("⁡"),mfrac(msup(mi("i"),mi("n")),mrow(mi("n"),mo("!")),linethickness = "1"),mo("⁢"),mo("∫"),mi("…"),mo("⁢"),mo("∫"),mi("T"),mo("⁡"),mfenced(mrow(mi("L"),mo("⁡"),mfenced(mi("\`X__1\`")),mo(","),mi("…"),mo(","),mi("L"),mo("⁡"),mfenced(mi("\`X__n\`")))),mo("⁢"),mo("ⅆ"),msup(mi("\`X__1\`"),mn("4")),mo("⁢"),mi("…"),mo("⁢"),mo("ⅆ"),msup(mi("\`X__n\`"),mn("4")))`


and T(L(X[1]), `...`, L(X[n])) is the time-ordered product of n interaction Lagrangians evaluated at different points. The S matrix formulation is at the core of perturbative approaches in relativistic Quantum Field Theory, where exact solutions are known only for some 2-dimensional models.


 In brief, the new functionality includes computing:


The expansion S = 1+S[1]+S[2]+S[3]+`...` in coordinates representation up to arbitrary order (the limitation is now only the hardware)


The S-matrix element `#mfenced(mrow(mo("⁢"),mi("f"),mo("⁢"),mo("|"),mo("⁢"),mi("S"),mo("⁢"),mo("|"),mo("⁢"),mi("i"),mo("⁢")),open = "⟨",close = "⟩")` in momentum representation up to arbitrary order for given number of loops and initial and final particles (the contents of the `#mfenced(mrow(mo("⁢"),mi("i"),mo("⁢")),open = "|",close = "⟩")` and `#mfenced(mrow(mo("⁢"),mi("f"),mo("⁢")),open = "|",close = "⟩")` states); optionally, also the transition probability density, constructed using the square of the scattering matrix element abs(`#mfenced(mrow(mo("⁢"),mi("f"),mo("⁢"),mo("|"),mo("⁢"),mi("S"),mo("⁢"),mo("|"),mo("⁢"),mi("i"),mo("⁢")),open = "⟨",close = "⟩")`)^2, as shown in formula (13) of sec. 21.1 of ref.[1].


The Feynman diagrams (drawings) related to the different terms of the expansion of S or of its matrix elements `#mfenced(mrow(mo("⁢"),mi("f"),mo("⁢"),mo("|"),mo("⁢"),mi("S"),mo("⁢"),mo("|"),mo("⁢"),mi("i"),mo("⁢")),open = "⟨",close = "⟩")`.


Interaction Lagrangians involving derivatives of fields, typically appearing in non-Abelian gauge theories, are also handled, and several options are provided enabling restricting the outcome in different ways, regarding the incoming and outgoing particles, the number of loops, vertices or external legs, the propagators and normal products, or whether to compute tadpoles and 1-particle reducible terms.






[1] Bogoliubov, N.N., and Shirkov, D.V. Quantum Fields. Benjamin Cummings, 1982.

[2] Weinberg, S., The Quantum Theory Of Fields. Cambridge University Press, 2005.




Edgardo S. Cheb-Terrab
Physics, Differential Equations and Mathematical Functions, Maplesoft

Splitting PDE parameterized symmetries

and Parameter-continuous symmetry transformations

The determination of symmetries for partial differential equation systems (PDE) is relevant in several contexts, the most obvious of which is of course the determination of the PDE solutions. For instance, generally speaking, the knowledge of a N-dimensional Lie symmetry group can be used to reduce the number of independent variables of PDE by N. So if PDE depends only on N independent variables, that amounts to completely solving it. If only N-1 symmetries are known or can be successfully used then PDE becomes and ODE; etc., all advantageous situations. In Maple, a complete set of symmetry commands, to perform each step of the symmetry approach or several of them in one go, is part of the PDEtools  package.


Besides the dependent and independent variables, PDE frequently depends on some constant parameters, and besides the PDE symmetries for arbitrary values of those parameters, for some particular values of them, PDE transforms into a completely different problem, admitting different symmetries. The question then is: how can you determine those particular values of the parameters and the corresponding different symmetries? That was the underlying subject of a recent question in Mapleprimes. The answer to those questions is relatively simple and yet not entirely obvious for most of us, motivating this post, organized briefly around one example.


To reproduce the input/output below you need Maple 2019 and to have installed the Physics Updates v.449 or higher.


Consider the family of Korteweg-de Vries equation for u(x, t)involving three constant parameters a, b, q. For convenience (simpler input and more readable output) use the diff_table  and declare  commands


U := diff_table(u(x, t))

pde := b*U[]*U[x]+a*U[x]+q*U[x, x, x]+U[t] = 0

b*u(x, t)*(diff(u(x, t), x))+a*(diff(u(x, t), x))+q*(diff(diff(diff(u(x, t), x), x), x))+diff(u(x, t), t) = 0



` u`(x, t)*`will now be displayed as`*u


This pde admits a 4-dimensional symmetry group, whose infinitesimals - for arbitrary values of the parameters a, b, q- are given by

I__1 := Infinitesimals(pde, [u], specialize_Cn = false)

[_xi[x](x, t, u) = (1/3)*_C1*x+_C3*t+_C4, _xi[t](x, t, u) = _C1*t+_C2, _eta[u](x, t, u) = (1/3)*((-2*b*u-2*a)*_C1+3*_C3)/b]


Looking at pde (1) as a nonlinear problem in u, a, b and q, it splits into four cases for some particular values of the parameter:

pde__cases := casesplit(b*u(x, t)*(diff(u(x, t), x))+a*(diff(u(x, t), x))+q*(diff(diff(diff(u(x, t), x), x), x))+diff(u(x, t), t) = 0, parameters = {a, b, q}, caseplot)

`========= Pivots Legend =========`


p1 = q


p2 = b*u(x, t)+a


p3 = b



`casesplit/ans`([diff(diff(diff(u(x, t), x), x), x) = -(b*u(x, t)*(diff(u(x, t), x))+a*(diff(u(x, t), x))+diff(u(x, t), t))/q], [q <> 0]), `casesplit/ans`([diff(u(x, t), x) = -(diff(u(x, t), t))/(b*u(x, t)+a), q = 0], [b*u(x, t)+a <> 0]), `casesplit/ans`([u(x, t) = -a/b, q = 0], [b <> 0]), `casesplit/ans`([diff(u(x, t), t) = 0, a = 0, b = 0, q = 0], [])


The legend above indicates the pivots and the tree of cases, depending on whether each pivot is equal or different from 0. At the end there is the algebraic sequence of cases. The first case is the general case, for which the symmetry infinitesimals were computed as I__1 above, but clearly the other three cases admit more general symmetries. Consider for instance the second case, pass the ignoreparameterizingequations to ignore the parameterizing equation q = 0, and you get

I__2 := Infinitesimals(pde__cases[2], ignore)

`* Partial match of  'ignore' against keyword 'ignoreparameterizingequations'`


[_xi[x](x, t, u) = _F3(x, t, u), _xi[t](x, t, u) = Intat(((b*u+a)*(D[1](_F3))(_a, ((b*u+a)*t-x+_a)/(b*u+a), u)-_F1(u, ((b*u+a)*t-x)/(b*u+a))*b+(D[2](_F3))(_a, ((b*u+a)*t-x+_a)/(b*u+a), u))/(b*u+a)^2, _a = x)+_F2(u, ((b*u+a)*t-x)/(b*u+a)), _eta[u](x, t, u) = _F1(u, ((b*u+a)*t-x)/(b*u+a))]


These infinitesimals are indeed much more general than I__1, in fact so general that (5) is almost unreadable ... Specialize the three arbitrary functions into something "easy" just to be able follow - e.g. take _F1 to be just the + operator, _F2 the * operator and _F3 = 1

eval(I__2, [_F1 = `+`, _F2 = `*`, _F3 = 1])

[_xi[x](x, t, u) = 1, _xi[t](x, t, u) = Intat(-(u+((b*u+a)*t-x)/(b*u+a))*b/(b*u+a)^2, _a = x)+u*((b*u+a)*t-x)/(b*u+a), _eta[u](x, t, u) = u+((b*u+a)*t-x)/(b*u+a)]


simplify(value([_xi[x](x, t, u) = 1, _xi[t](x, t, u) = Intat(-(u+((b*u+a)*t-x)/(b*u+a))*b/(b*u+a)^2, _a = x)+u*((b*u+a)*t-x)/(b*u+a), _eta[u](x, t, u) = u+((b*u+a)*t-x)/(b*u+a)]))

[_xi[x](x, t, u) = 1, _xi[t](x, t, u) = (b^3*t*u^4+((3*a*t-x)*u^3-u^2*x-t*x*u)*b^2+((3*a^2*t-2*a*x)*u^2-a*u*x-a*t*x+x^2)*b+a^2*u*(a*t-x))/(b*u+a)^3, _eta[u](x, t, u) = (b*u^2+(b*t+a)*u+a*t-x)/(b*u+a)]


This symmetry is of course completely different than [_xi[x](x, t, u) = (1/3)*_C1*x+_C3*t+_C4, _xi[t](x, t, u) = _C1*t+_C2, _eta[u](x, t, u) = ((-2*b*u-2*a)*_C1+3*_C3)/(3*b)]computed for the general case.


The symmetry (7) can be verified against pde__cases[2] or directly against pde after substituting q = 0.

[_xi[x](x, t, u) = (1/3)*_C1*x+_C3*t+_C4, _xi[t](x, t, u) = _C1*t+_C2, _eta[u](x, t, u) = (1/3)*((-2*b*u-2*a)*_C1+3*_C3)/b]


SymmetryTest([_xi[x](x, t, u) = 1, _xi[t](x, t, u) = (b^3*t*u^4+((3*a*t-x)*u^3-u^2*x-t*x*u)*b^2+((3*a^2*t-2*a*x)*u^2-a*u*x-a*t*x+x^2)*b+a^2*u*(a*t-x))/(b*u+a)^3, _eta[u](x, t, u) = (b*u^2+(b*t+a)*u+a*t-x)/(b*u+a)], pde__cases[2], ignore)

`* Partial match of  'ignore' against keyword 'ignoreparameterizingequations'`




SymmetryTest([_xi[x](x, t, u) = 1, _xi[t](x, t, u) = (b^3*t*u^4+((3*a*t-x)*u^3-u^2*x-t*x*u)*b^2+((3*a^2*t-2*a*x)*u^2-a*u*x-a*t*x+x^2)*b+a^2*u*(a*t-x))/(b*u+a)^3, _eta[u](x, t, u) = (b*u^2+(b*t+a)*u+a*t-x)/(b*u+a)], subs(q = 0, pde))



Summarizing: "to split PDE symmetries into cases according to the values of the PDE parameters, split the PDE into cases with respect to these parameters (command PDEtools:-casesplit ) then compute the symmetries for each case"


Parameter continuous symmetry transformations


A different, however closely related question, is whether pde admits "symmetries with respect to the parameters a, b and q", so whether exists continuous transformations of the parameters a, b and q that leave pde invariant in form.


Beforehand, note that since the parameters are constants with regards to the dependent and independent variables (here u(x, t)), such continuous symmetry transformations cannot be used directly to compute a solution for pde. They can, however, be used to reduce the number of parameters. And in some contexts, that is exactly what we need, for example to entirely remove the splitting into cases due to their presence, or to proceed applying a solving method that is valid only when there are no parameters (frequently the case when computing exact solutions to "PDE & Boundary Conditions").


To compute such "continuous symmetry transformations of the parameters" that leave pde invariant one can always think of these parameters as "additional independent variables of pde". In terms of formulation, that amounts to replacing the dependency in the dependent variable, i.e. replace u(x, t) by u(x, t, a, b, q)


pde__xtabq := subs((x, t) = (x, t, a, b, q), pde)

b*u(x, t, a, b, q)*(diff(u(x, t, a, b, q), x))+a*(diff(u(x, t, a, b, q), x))+q*(diff(diff(diff(u(x, t, a, b, q), x), x), x))+diff(u(x, t, a, b, q), t) = 0


Compute now the infinitesimals: note there are now three additional ones, related to continuous transformations of "a,b,"and q - for readability, avoid displaying the redundant functionality x, t, a, b, q, u on the left-hand sides of these infinitesimals

Infinitesimals(pde__xtabq, displayfunctionality = false)

[_xi[x] = (1/3)*(_F4(a, b, q)*q+_F3(a, b, q))*x/q+_F6(a, b, q)*t+_F7(a, b, q), _xi[t] = _F4(a, b, q)*t+_F5(a, b, q), _xi[a] = _F1(a, b, q), _xi[b] = _F2(a, b, q), _xi[q] = _F3(a, b, q), _eta[u] = (1/3)*((b*u+a)*_F3(a, b, q)-2*((b*u+a)*_F4(a, b, q)+(3/2)*u*_F2(a, b, q)+(3/2)*_F1(a, b, q)-(3/2)*_F6(a, b, q))*q)/(b*q)]


This result is more general than what is convenient for algebraic manipulations, so specialize the seven arbitrary functions of a, b, q and keep only the first symmetry that result from this specialization: that suffices to illustrate the removal of any of the three parameters a, b, or q

S := Library:-Specialize_Fn([_xi[x] = (1/3)*(_F4(a, b, q)*q+_F3(a, b, q))*x/q+_F6(a, b, q)*t+_F7(a, b, q), _xi[t] = _F4(a, b, q)*t+_F5(a, b, q), _xi[a] = _F1(a, b, q), _xi[b] = _F2(a, b, q), _xi[q] = _F3(a, b, q), _eta[u] = (1/3)*((b*u+a)*_F3(a, b, q)-2*((b*u+a)*_F4(a, b, q)+(3/2)*u*_F2(a, b, q)+(3/2)*_F1(a, b, q)-(3/2)*_F6(a, b, q))*q)/(b*q)])[1 .. 1]

[_xi[x] = 0, _xi[t] = 0, _xi[a] = 1, _xi[b] = 0, _xi[q] = 0, _eta[u] = -1/b]


To remove the parameters, as it is standard in the symmetry approach, compute a transformation to canonical coordinates, with respect to the parameter a. That means a transformation that changes the list of infinitesimals, or likewise its infinitesimal generator representation,

InfinitesimalGenerator(S, [u(x, t, a, b, q)])

proc (f) options operator, arrow; diff(f, a)-(diff(f, u))/b end proc


into [_xi[x] = 0, _xi[t] = 0, _xi[a] = 1, _xi[b] = 0, _xi[q] = 0, _eta[u] = 0] or its equivalent generator representation  proc (f) options operator, arrow; diff(f, a) end proc

That same transformation, when applied to pde__xtabq, entirely removes the parameter a.

The transformation is computed using CanonicalCoordinates and the last argument indicates the "independent variable" (in our case a parameter) that the transformation should remove. We choose to remove a

CanonicalCoordinates(S, [u(x, t, a, b, q)], [upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi)], a)

{alpha = a, beta = b, chi = q, tau = t, xi = x, upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi) = (b*u(x, t, a, b, q)+a)/b}


declare({alpha = a, beta = b, chi = q, tau = t, xi = x, upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi) = (b*u(x, t, a, b, q)+a)/b})

` u`(x, t, a, b, q)*`will now be displayed as`*u


` upsilon`(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi)*`will now be displayed as`*upsilon


Invert this transformation in order to apply it

solve({alpha = a, beta = b, chi = q, tau = t, xi = x, upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi) = (b*u(x, t, a, b, q)+a)/b}, {a, b, q, t, x, u(x, t, a, b, q)})

{a = alpha, b = beta, q = chi, t = tau, x = xi, u(x, t, a, b, q) = (upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi)*beta-alpha)/beta}


The next step is not necessary, but just to understand how all this works, verify its action over the infinitesimal generator proc (f) options operator, arrow; diff(f, a)-(diff(f, u))/b end proc

ChangeSymmetry({a = alpha, b = beta, q = chi, t = tau, x = xi, u(x, t, a, b, q) = (upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi)*beta-alpha)/beta}, proc (f) options operator, arrow; diff(f, a)-(diff(f, u))/b end proc, [upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi), xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi])

proc (f) options operator, arrow; diff(f, alpha) end proc


Now that we see the transformation (17) is the one we want, just use it to change variables in pde__xtabq

PDEtools:-dchange({a = alpha, b = beta, q = chi, t = tau, x = xi, u(x, t, a, b, q) = (upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi)*beta-alpha)/beta}, pde__xtabq, [upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi), xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi], simplify)

upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi)*(diff(upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi), xi))*beta+chi*(diff(diff(diff(upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi), xi), xi), xi))+diff(upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi), tau) = 0


As expected, this result depends only on two parameters, beta, and chi, and the one equivalent to a (that is alpha, see the transformation used (17)), is not present anymore.

To remove b or q we use the same steps, (15), (17) and (19), just changing the parameter to be removed, indicated as the last argument  in the call to CanonicalCoordinates . For example, to eliminate b (represented in the new variables by beta), input

CanonicalCoordinates(S, [u(x, t, a, b, q)], [upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi)], b)

{alpha = b, beta = a, chi = q, tau = t, xi = x, upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi) = (b*u(x, t, a, b, q)+a)/b}


solve({alpha = b, beta = a, chi = q, tau = t, xi = x, upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi) = (b*u(x, t, a, b, q)+a)/b}, {a, b, q, t, x, u(x, t, a, b, q)})

{a = beta, b = alpha, q = chi, t = tau, x = xi, u(x, t, a, b, q) = (upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi)*alpha-beta)/alpha}


PDEtools:-dchange({a = beta, b = alpha, q = chi, t = tau, x = xi, u(x, t, a, b, q) = (upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi)*alpha-beta)/alpha}, pde__xtabq, [upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi), xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi], simplify)

upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi)*(diff(upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi), xi))*alpha+chi*(diff(diff(diff(upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi), xi), xi), xi))+diff(upsilon(xi, tau, alpha, beta, chi), tau) = 0


and as expected this result does not contain "beta. "To remove a second parameter, the whole cycle is repeated starting with computing infinitesimals, for instance for (22). Finally, the case of function parameters is treated analogously, by considering the function parameters as additional dependent variables instead of independent ones.



Download How_to_split_symmetries_into_cases_(II).mw

Edgardo S. Cheb-Terrab
Physics, Differential Equations and Mathematical Functions, Maplesoft

Integral Transforms (revamped) and PDEs


Integral transforms, implemented in Maple as the inttrans  package, are special integrals that appear frequently in mathematical-physics and that have remarkable properties. One of the main uses of integral transforms is for the computation of exact solutions to ordinary and partial differential equations with initial/boundary conditions. In Maple, that functionality is implemented in dsolve/inttrans  and in pdsolve/boundary conditions .


During the last months, we have been working heavily on several aspects of these integral transform functions and this post is about that. This is work in progress, in collaboration with Katherina von Bulow


The integral transforms are represented by the commands of the inttrans  package:


[addtable, fourier, fouriercos, fouriersin, hankel, hilbert, invfourier, invhilbert, invlaplace, invmellin, laplace, mellin, savetable, setup]


Three of these commands, addtable, savetable, and setup (this one is new, only present after installing the Physics Updates) are "administrative" commands while the others are computational representations for integrals. For example,

FunctionAdvisor(integral_form, fourier)

[fourier(a, b, z) = Int(a/exp(I*b*z), b = -infinity .. infinity), MathematicalFunctions:-`with no restrictions on `(a, b, z)]


FunctionAdvisor(integral_form, mellin)

[mellin(a, b, z) = Int(a*b^(z-1), b = 0 .. infinity), MathematicalFunctions:-`with no restrictions on `(a, b, z)]


For all the integral transform commands, the first argument is the integrand, the second one is the dummy integration variable of a definite integral and the third one is the evaluation point. (also called transform variable). The integral representation is also visible using the convert network

laplace(f(t), t, s); % = convert(%, Int)

laplace(f(t), t, s) = Int(f(t)*exp(-s*t), t = 0 .. infinity)


Having in mind the applications of these integral transforms to compute integrals and exact solutions to PDE with boundary conditions, five different aspects of these transforms received further development:


Compute Derivatives: Yes or No


Numerical Evaluation


Two Hankel Transform Definitions


More integral transform results


Mellin and Hankel transform solutions for Partial Differential Equations with boundary conditions

The project includes having all these tranforms available at user level (not ready), say as FourierTransform for inttrans:-fourier, so that we don't need to input with(inttrans) anymore. Related to these changes we also intend to have Heaviside(0) not return undefined anymore, and return itself instead, unevaluated, so that one can set its value according to the problem/preferred convention (typically 0, 1/2 or 1) and have all the Maple library following that choice.

The material presented in the following sections is reproducible already in Maple 2019 by installing the latest Physics Updates (v.435 or higher),

Compute derivatives: Yes or No.


For historical reasons, previous implementations of these integral transform commands did not follow a standard paradigm of computer algebra: "Given a function f(x), the input diff(f(x), x) should return the derivative of f(x)". The implementation instead worked in the opposite direction: if you were to input the result of the derivative, you would receive the derivative representation. For example, to the input laplace(-t*f(t), t, s) you would receive d*laplace(f(t), t, s)/ds. This is particularly useful for the purpose of using integral transforms to solve differential equations but it is counter-intuitive and misleading; Maple knows the differentiation rule of these functions, but that rule was not evident anywhere. It was not clear how to compute the derivative (unless you knew the result in advance).


To solve this issue, a new command, setup, has been added to the package, so that you can set "whether or not" to compute derivatives, and the default has been changed to computederivatives = true while the old behavior is obtained only if you input setup(computederivatives = false). For example, after having installed the Physics Updates,


`The "Physics Updates" version in the MapleCloud is 435 and is the same as the version installed in this computer, created 2019, October 1, 12:46 hours, found in the directory /Users/ecterrab/maple/toolbox/2019/Physics Updates/lib/`


the current settings can be queried via


computederivatives = true


and so differentiating returns the derivative computed

(%diff = diff)(laplace(f(t), t, s), s)

%diff(laplace(f(t), t, s), s) = -laplace(f(t)*t, t, s)


while changing this setting to work as in previous releases you have this computation reversed: you input the output (1.3) and you get the corresponding input

setup(computederivatives = false)

computederivatives = false


%diff(laplace(f(t), t, s), s) = -laplace(t*f(t), t, s)

%diff(laplace(f(t), t, s), s) = diff(laplace(f(t), t, s), s)


Reset the value of computederivatives

setup(computederivatives = true)

computederivatives = true


%diff(laplace(f(t), t, s), s) = -laplace(t*f(t), t, s)

%diff(laplace(f(t), t, s), s) = -laplace(f(t)*t, t, s)


In summary: by default, derivatives of integral transforms are now computed; if you need to work with these derivatives as in  previous releases, you can input setup(computederivatives = false). This setting can be changed any time you want within one and the same Maple session, and changing it does not have any impact on the performance of intsolve, dsolve and pdsolve to solve differential equations using integral transforms.


Numerical Evaluation


In previous releases, integral transforms had no numerical evaluation implemented. This is in the process of changing. So, for example, to numerically evaluate the inverse laplace transform ( invlaplace  command), three different algorithms have been implemented: Gaver-Stehfest, Talbot and Euler, following the presentation by Abate and Whitt, "Unified Framework for Numerically Inverting Laplace Transforms", INFORMS Journal on Computing 18(4), pp. 408–421, 2006.


For example, consider the exact solution to this partial differential equation subject to initial and boundary conditions

pde := diff(u(x, t), x) = 4*(diff(u(x, t), t, t))

iv := u(x, 0) = 0, u(0, t) = 1


Note that these two conditions are not entirely compatible: the solution returned cannot be valid for x = 0 and t = 0 simultaneously. However, a solution discarding that point does exist and is given by

sol := pdsolve([pde, iv])

u(x, t) = -invlaplace(exp(-(1/2)*s^(1/2)*t)/s, s, x)+1


Verifying the solution, one condition remains to be tested

pdetest(sol, [pde, iv])

[0, 0, -invlaplace(exp(-(1/2)*s^(1/2)*t)/s, s, 0)]


Since we now have numerical evaluation rules, we can test that what looks different from 0 in the above is actually 0.

zero := [0, 0, -invlaplace(exp(-(1/2)*s^(1/2)*t)/s, s, 0)][-1]

-invlaplace(exp(-(1/2)*s^(1/2)*t)/s, s, 0)


Add a small number to the initial value of t to skip the point t = 0

plot(zero, t = 0+10^(-10) .. 1)


The default method used is the method of Euler sums and the numerical evaluation is performed as usual using the evalf command. For example, consider

F := sin(sqrt(2*t))


The Laplace transform of F is given by

LT := laplace(F, t, s)



and the inverse Laplace transform of LT in inert form is

ILT := %invlaplace(LT, s, t)

%invlaplace((1/2)*2^(1/2)*Pi^(1/2)*exp(-(1/2)/s)/s^(3/2), s, t)


At t = 1 we have

eval(ILT, t = 1)

%invlaplace((1/2)*2^(1/2)*Pi^(1/2)*exp(-(1/2)/s)/s^(3/2), s, 1)


evalf(%invlaplace((1/2)*2^(1/2)*Pi^(1/2)*exp(-(1/2)/s)/s^(3/2), s, 1))



This result is consistent with the one we get if we first compute the exact form of the inverse Laplace transform at t = 1:

%invlaplace((1/2)*2^(1/2)*Pi^(1/2)*exp(-(1/2)/s)/s^(3/2), s, 1) = value(%invlaplace((1/2)*2^(1/2)*Pi^(1/2)*exp(-(1/2)/s)/s^(3/2), s, 1))

%invlaplace((1/2)*2^(1/2)*Pi^(1/2)*exp(-(1/2)/s)/s^(3/2), s, 1) = sin(2^(1/2))


evalf(%invlaplace((1/2)*2^(1/2)*Pi^(1/2)*exp(-(1/2)/s)/s^(3/2), s, 1) = sin(2^(1/2)))

.9877659460 = .9877659459


In addition to the standard use of evalf to numerically evaluate inverse Laplace transforms, one can invoke each of the three different methods implemented using the MathematicalFunctions:-Evalf  command

with(MathematicalFunctions, Evalf)



Evalf(%invlaplace((1/2)*2^(1/2)*Pi^(1/2)*exp(-(1/2)/s)/s^(3/2), s, 1), method = Talbot)



MF:-Evalf(%invlaplace((1/2)*2^(1/2)*Pi^(1/2)*exp(-(1/2)/s)/s^(3/2), s, 1), method = GaverStehfest)



MF:-Evalf(%invlaplace((1/2)*2^(1/2)*Pi^(1/2)*exp(-(1/2)/s)/s^(3/2), s, 1), method = Euler)



Regarding the method we use by default: from a numerical experiment with varied problems we have concluded that our implementation of the Euler (sums) method is faster and more accurate than the other two.


Two Hankel transform definitions


In previous Maple releases, the definition of the Hankel transform was given by

hankel(f(t), t, s, nu) = Int(f(t)*sqrt(s*t)*BesselJ(nu, s*t), t = 0 .. infinity)

where BesselJ(nu, s*t) is the BesselJ(nu, s*t) function. This definition, sometimes called alternative definition of the Hankel transform, has the inconvenience of the square root sqrt(s*t) in the integrand, complicating the form of the hankel transform for the Laplacian in cylindrical coordinates. On the other hand, the definition more frequently used in the literature is

 hankel(f(t), t, s, nu) = Int(f(t)*t*BesselJ(nu, s*t), t = 0 .. infinity)

With it, the Hankel transform of diff(u(r, t), r, r)+(diff(u(r, t), r))/r+diff(u(r, t), t, t) is given by the simple ODE form d^2*`&Hopf;`(k, t)/dt^2-k^2*`&Hopf;`(k, t). Not just this transform but several other ones acquire a simpler form with the definition that does not have a square root in the integrand.

So the idea is to align Maple with this simpler definition, while keeping the previous definition as an alternative. Hence, by default, when you load the inttrans package, the new definition in use for the Hankel transform is

hankel(f(t), t, s, nu); % = convert(%, Int)

hankel(f(t), t, s, nu) = Int(f(t)*t*BesselJ(nu, s*t), t = 0 .. infinity)


You can change this default so that Maple works with the alternative definition as in previous releases.  For that purpose, use the new inttrans:-setup command (which you can also use to query about the definition in use at any moment):


alternativehankeldefinition = false


This change in definition is automatically taken into account by other parts of the Maple library using the Hankel transform. For example, the differentiation rule with the new definition is

(%diff = diff)(hankel(f(t), t, z, nu), z)

%diff(hankel(f(t), t, z, nu), z) = -hankel(t*f(t), t, z, nu+1)+nu*hankel(f(t), t, z, nu)/z


This differentiation rule resembles (is connected to) the differentiation rule for BesselJ, and this is another advantage of the new definition.

(%diff = diff)(BesselJ(nu, z), z)

%diff(BesselJ(nu, z), z) = -BesselJ(nu+1, z)+nu*BesselJ(nu, z)/z


Furthermore, several transforms have acquired a simpler form, as for example:

`assuming`([(%hankel = hankel)(exp(I*a*r)/r, r, k, 0)], [a > 0, k < a])

%hankel(exp(I*a*r)/r, r, k, 0) = 1/(-a^2+k^2)^(1/2)


Let's compare: make the definition be as in previous releases.

setup(alternativehankeldefinition = true)

alternativehankeldefinition = true


hankel(f(t), t, s, nu); % = convert(%, Int)

hankel(f(t), t, s, nu) = Int(f(t)*(s*t)^(1/2)*BesselJ(nu, s*t), t = 0 .. infinity)


The differentiation rule with the previous (alternative) definition was not as simple:

(%diff = diff)(hankel(f(t), t, s, nu), s)

%diff(hankel(f(t), t, s, nu), s) = -hankel(t*f(t), t, s, nu+1)+nu*hankel(f(t), t, s, nu)/s+(1/2)*hankel(f(t), t, s, nu)/s


And the transform (3.5) was also not so simple:

`assuming`([(%hankel = hankel)(exp(I*a*r)/r, r, k, 0)], [a > 0, k < a])

%hankel(exp(I*a*r)/r, r, k, 0) = (I*a*hypergeom([3/4, 3/4], [3/2], a^2/k^2)*GAMMA(3/4)^4+Pi^2*k*hypergeom([1/4, 1/4], [1/2], a^2/k^2))/(k*Pi*GAMMA(3/4)^2)


Reset to the new default value of the definition.

setup(alternativehankeldefinition = false)

alternativehankeldefinition = false


hankel(f(t), t, s, nu); % = convert(%, Int)

hankel(f(t), t, s, nu) = Int(f(t)*t*BesselJ(nu, s*t), t = 0 .. infinity)


More integral transform results



The revision of the integral transforms includes also filling gaps: previous transforms that were not being computed are now computed. Still with the Hankel transform, consider the operators

`D/t` := proc (u) options operator, arrow; (diff(u, t))/t end proc
formula_plus := t^(-nu)*(`D/t`@@m)(t^(m+nu)*u(t))

formula_minus := t^nu*(`D/t`@@m)(t^(m-nu)*u(t))


Being able to transform these operators into algebraic expressions or differential equations of lower order is key for solving PDE problems with Boundary Conditions.


Consider, for instance, this ODE

setup(computederivatives = false)

computederivatives = false


simplify(eval(formula_minus, [nu = 6, m = 3]))

((diff(diff(diff(u(t), t), t), t))*t^3-12*(diff(diff(u(t), t), t))*t^2+57*(diff(u(t), t))*t-105*u(t))/t^3


Its Hankel transform is a simple algebraic expression

hankel(((diff(diff(diff(u(t), t), t), t))*t^3-12*(diff(diff(u(t), t), t))*t^2+57*(diff(u(t), t))*t-105*u(t))/t^3, t, s, 6)

-s^3*hankel(u(t), t, s, 3)


An example with formula_plus

simplify(eval(formula_plus, [nu = 7, m = 4]))

((diff(diff(diff(diff(u(t), t), t), t), t))*t^4+38*(diff(diff(diff(u(t), t), t), t))*t^3+477*(diff(diff(u(t), t), t))*t^2+2295*(diff(u(t), t))*t+3465*u(t))/t^4


hankel(((diff(diff(diff(diff(u(t), t), t), t), t))*t^4+38*(diff(diff(diff(u(t), t), t), t))*t^3+477*(diff(diff(u(t), t), t))*t^2+2295*(diff(u(t), t))*t+3465*u(t))/t^4, t, s, 7)

s^4*hankel(u(t), t, s, 11)


In the case of hankel , not just differential operators but also several new transforms are now computable

hankel(1, r, k, nu)

piecewise(nu = 0, Dirac(k)/k, nu/k^2)


hankel(r^m, r, k, nu)

piecewise(And(nu = 0, m = 0), Dirac(k)/k, 2^(m+1)*k^(-m-2)*GAMMA(1+(1/2)*m+(1/2)*nu)/GAMMA((1/2)*nu-(1/2)*m))



Mellin and Hankel transform solutions for Partial Differential Equations with Boundary Conditions


In previous Maple releases, the Fourier and Laplace transforms were used to compute exact solutions to PDE problems with boundary conditions. Now, Mellin and Hankel transforms are also used for that same purpose.



pde := x^2*(diff(u(x, y), x, x))+x*(diff(u(x, y), x))+diff(u(x, y), y, y) = 0

iv := u(x, 0) = 0, u(x, 1) = piecewise(0 <= x and x < 1, 1, 1 < x, 0)

sol := pdsolve([pde, iv])

u(x, y) = invmellin(sin(s*y)/(sin(s)*s), s, x)


As usual, you can let pdsolve choose the solving method, or indicate the method yourself:

pde := diff(u(r, t), r, r)+(diff(u(r, t), r))/r+diff(u(r, t), t, t) = -Q__0*q(r)
iv := u(r, 0) = 0

pdsolve([pde, iv])

u(r, t) = Q__0*(-hankel(exp(-s*t)*hankel(q(r), r, s, 0)/s^2, s, r, 0)+hankel(hankel(q(r), r, s, 0)/s^2, s, r, 0))


It is sometimes preferable to see these solutions in terms of more familiar integrals. For that purpose, use

convert(u(r, t) = Q__0*(-hankel(exp(-s*t)*hankel(q(r), r, s, 0)/s^2, s, r, 0)+hankel(hankel(q(r), r, s, 0)/s^2, s, r, 0)), Int, only = hankel)

u(r, t) = Q__0*(-(Int(exp(-s*t)*(Int(q(r)*r*BesselJ(0, r*s), r = 0 .. infinity))*BesselJ(0, r*s)/s, s = 0 .. infinity))+Int((Int(q(r)*r*BesselJ(0, r*s), r = 0 .. infinity))*BesselJ(0, r*s)/s, s = 0 .. infinity))


An example where the hankel transform is computable to the end:

pde := c^2*(diff(u(r, t), r, r)+(diff(u(r, t), r))/r) = diff(u(r, t), t, t)
iv := u(r, 0) = A*a/(a^2+r^2)^(1/2), (D[2](u))(r, 0) = 0

`assuming`([pdsolve([pde, iv], method = Hankel)], [r > 0, t > 0, a > 0])

u(r, t) = (1/2)*A*a*((-c^2*t^2+(2*I)*a*c*t+a^2+r^2)^(1/2)+(-c^2*t^2-(2*I)*a*c*t+a^2+r^2)^(1/2))/((-c^2*t^2-(2*I)*a*c*t+a^2+r^2)^(1/2)*(-c^2*t^2+(2*I)*a*c*t+a^2+r^2)^(1/2))




Download Integral_Transforms_(revamped).mw

Edgardo S. Cheb-Terrab
Physics, Differential Equations and Mathematical Functions, Maplesoft


The Physics Updates for Maple 2019 (current v.331 or higher) is already available for installation via MapleCloud. This version contains further improvements to the Maple 2019 capabilities for solving PDE & BC as well as to the tensor simplifier. To install these Updates,

  • Open Maple,
  • Click the MapleCloud icon in the upper-right corner to open the MapleCloud toolbar 
  • In the MapleCloud toolbar, open Packages
  • Find the Physics Updates package and click the install button, it is the last one under Actions
  • To check for new versions of Physics Updates, click the MapleCloud icon. If the Updates icon has a red dot, click it to install the new version

Note that the first time you install the Updates in Maple 2019 you need to install them from Packages, even if in your copy of Maple 2018 you had already installed these Updates.

Also, at this moment you cannot use the MapleCloud to install the Physics Updates for Maple 2018. So, to install the last version of the Updates for Maple 2018, open Maple 2018 and enter PackageTools:-Install("5137472255164416", version = 329, overwrite)

Edgardo S. Cheb-Terrab
Physics, Differential Equations and Mathematical Functions, Maplesoft

A Complete Guide for performing Tensors computations using Physics


This is an old request, a complete guide for using Physics  to perform tensor computations. This guide, shown below with Sections closed, is linked at the end of this post as a pdf file with all the sections open, and also as a Maple worksheet that allows for reproducing its contents. Most of the computations shown are reproducible in Maple 2018.2.1, and a significant part also in previous releases, but to reproduce everything you need to have the Maplesoft Physics Updates version 283 or higher installed. Feedback one how to improve this presentation is welcome.


Physics  is a package developed by Maplesoft, an integral part of the Maple system. In addition to its commands for Quantum Mechanics, Classical Field Theory and General Relativity, Physics  includes 5 other subpackages, three of them also related to General Relativity: Tetrads , ThreePlusOne  and NumericalRelativity (work in progress), plus one to compute with Vectors  and another related to the Standard Model (this one too work in progress).


The presentation is organized as follows. Section I is complete regarding the functionality provided with the Physics package for computing with tensors  in Classical and Quantum Mechanics (so including Euclidean spaces), Electrodynamics and Special Relativity. The material of section I is also relevant in General Relativity, for which section II is all devoted to curved spacetimes. (The sub-section on the Newman-Penrose formalism needs to be filled with more material and a new section devoted to the EnergyMomentum tensor is appropriate. I will complete these two things as time permits.) Section III is about transformations of coordinates, relevant in general.


For an alphabetical list of the Physics commands with a brief one-line description and a link to the corresponding help page see Physics: Brief description of each command .


I. Spacetime and tensors in Physics



This section contains all what is necessary for working with tensors in Classical and Quantum Mechanics, Electrodynamics and Special Relativity. This material is also relevant for computing with tensors in General Relativity, for which there is a dedicated Section II. Curved spacetimes .


Default metric and signature, coordinate systems


Tensors, their definition, symmetries and operations



Physics comes with a set of predefined tensors, mainly the spacetime metric  g[mu, nu], the space metric  gamma[j, k], and all the standard tensors of  General Relativity. In addition, one of the strengths of Physics is that you can define tensors, in natural ways, by indicating a matrix or array with its components, or indicating any generic tensorial expression involving other tensors.


In Maple, tensor indices are letters, as when computing with paper and pencil, lowercase or upper case, latin or greek, entered using indexation, as in A[mu], and are displayed as subscripts as in A[mu]. Contravariant indices are entered preceding the letter with ~, as in A[`~&mu;`], and are displayed as superscripts as in A[`~mu`]. You can work with two or more kinds of indices at the same time, e.g., spacetime and space indices.


To input greek letters, you can spell them, as in mu for mu, or simpler: use the shortcuts for entering Greek characters . Right-click your input and choose Convert To → 2-D Math input to give to your input spelled tensorial expression a textbook high quality typesetting.


Not every indexed object or function is, however, automatically a tensor. You first need to define it as such using the Define  command. You can do that in two ways:



Passing the tensor being defined, say F[mu, nu], possibly indicating symmetries and/or antisymmetries for its indices.


Passing a tensorial equation where the left-hand side is the tensor being defined as in 1. and the right-hand side is a tensorial expression - or an Array or Matrix - such that the components of the tensor being defined are equal to the components of the tensorial expression.


After defining a tensor - say A[mu] or F[mu, nu]- you can perform the following operations on algebraic expressions involving them



Automatic formatting of repeated indices, one covariant the other contravariant


Automatic handling of collisions of repeated indices in products of tensors


Simplify  products using Einstein's sum rule for repeated indices.


SumOverRepeatedIndices  of the tensorial expression.


Use TensorArray  to compute the expression's components


TransformCoordinates .


If you define a tensor using a tensorial equation, in addition to the items above you can:



Get each tensor component by indexing, say as in A[1] or A[`~1`]


Get all the covariant and contravariant components by respectively using the shortcut notation A[] and "A[~]".


Use any of the special indexing keywords valid for the pre-defined tensors of Physics; they are: definition, nonzero, and in the case of tensors of 2 indices also trace, and determinant.


No need to specify the tensor dependency for differentiation purposes - it is inferred automatically from its definition.


Redefine any particular tensor component using Library:-RedefineTensorComponent


Minimizing the number of independent tensor components using Library:-MinimizeTensorComponent


Compute the number of independent tensor components - relevant for tensors with several indices and different symmetries - using Library:-NumberOfTensorComponents .


The first two sections illustrate these two ways of defining a tensor and the features described. The next sections present the existing functionality of the Physics package to compute with tensors.


Defining a tensor passing the tensor itself


Defining a tensor passing a tensorial equation


Automatic formatting of repeated tensor indices and handling of their collisions in products


Tensor symmetries


Substituting tensors and tensor indices


Simplifying tensorial expressions




Visualizing tensor components - Library:-TensorComponents and TensorArray


Modifying tensor components - Library:-RedefineTensorComponent


Enhancing the display of tensorial expressions involving tensor functions and derivatives using CompactDisplay


The LeviCivita tensor and KroneckerDelta


The 3D space metric and decomposing 4D tensors into their 3D space part and the rest


Total differentials, the d_[mu] and dAlembertian operators


Tensorial differential operators in algebraic expressions


Inert tensors


Functional differentiation of tensorial expressions with respect to tensor functions


The Pauli matrices and the spacetime Psigma[mu] 4-vector


The Dirac matrices and the spacetime Dgamma[mu] 4-vector


Quantum not-commutative operators using tensor notation


II. Curved spacetimes



Physics comes with a set of predefined tensors, mainly the spacetime metric  g[mu, nu], the space metric  gamma[j, k], and all the standard tensors of general relativity, respectively entered and displayed as: Einstein[mu,nu] = G[mu, nu],    Ricci[mu,nu]  = R[mu, nu], Riemann[alpha, beta, mu, nu]  = R[alpha, beta, mu, nu], Weyl[alpha, beta, mu, nu],  = C[alpha, beta, mu, nu], and the Christoffel symbols   Christoffel[alpha, mu, nu]  = GAMMA[alpha, mu, nu] and Christoffel[~alpha, mu, nu]  = "GAMMA[mu,nu]^(alpha)" respectively of first and second kinds. The Tetrads  and ThreePlusOne  subpackages have other predefined related tensors. This section is thus all about computing with tensors in General Relativity.


Loading metrics from the database of solutions to Einstein's equations


Setting the spacetime metric indicating the line element or a Matrix


Covariant differentiation: the D_[mu] operator and the Christoffel symbols


The Einstein, Ricci, Riemann and Weyl tensors of General Relativity


A conversion network for the tensors of General Relativity


Tetrads and the local system of references - the Newman-Penrose formalism


The ThreePlusOne package and the 3+1 splitting of Einstein's equations


III. Transformations of coordinates


See Also


Physics , Conventions used in the Physics package , Physics examples , Physics Updates



Download, or the pdf version with sections open: Tensors_-_A_Complete_Guide.pdf

Edgardo S. Cheb-Terrab
Physics, Differential Equations and Mathematical Functions, Maplesoft

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