## Gauge covariant derivative of a scalar field (D_mu...

I would like to apply my self-defined gauge covariant derivative (7) to the scalar field (9) in the form Dagger(D_mu Phi) (D^mu Phi) (13). But when I do this, my result does not look right. It seems that Maple does not treat my covariant derivative as a differential operator (or I did not tell Maple how to interpret it correctly). Also, my result (16) should not contain any matrices, after all I am calculating the scalar product of two vectors.

Can someone help me to determine the scalar product (D_mu Phi) (D^mu Phi) correctly?

Could my error perhaps be due to the dimensions of my Pauli matrices? They are 2x2 and not 4x4.

Phi_Field.mw

## What is the best way to upload several mw and m fi...

If I'm not mistaken Mapleprimes doesn't accept m files nor folders.

TIA

## Large test expression. Why Maple timelimit hangs o...

This worksheet below has a very large test expression I use with Maple. It is just for testing.

Maple 2024.1 on windows 10. 128 GB RAM. Fast PC.

Someone in another question asked me to post this test worksheet for them to try also.

My question is: Why Maple expand hangs on it, even though I have timelimit?

I am not printing this at all. This is actually is run in .mpl file, but I am posting worksheet version here.

I am not asking about the printing of the expression. But about the timelimit hanging. This is the big problem for me. If timelimit hangs, my program hangs and no workaround.

Here is the worksheet below. The expression is 373,000 leave size, which is huge. Still, Maple should not hang and more important, timelimit should not hang as it was supposed to have been fixed in the year 2021.

Make sure to save all your work before running this.

Since expression is very large, I will only post link and not display the content here as well.

why_timelimit_hang.mw

At the bottom of the worksheet, there is one command that does print(e); which will hang Maple. so make sure to save your work if you want to run this command.

There is also second command after that, which is my question is about., It does

try
timelimit(20,expand(e)):
catch:
print("Timed out OK");
end try:

And this hangs.

My question is why and is there a workaround? I know it is large expression, but there is a timeout there. Maple should have timedout. Right?

## Error, (in RootOf) _Z occurs but is not the depend...

I added radnormal(sol) to my solution to workaround bug in solve hanging

But now new problem showed up. sometimes radnormal gives internal error when there are _Z's in solution.

Error, (in RootOf) _Z occurs but is not the dependent variable

Attached worksheet. Sorry that the solution is very large and has lots of _Zs and RootOf, but this is the first one I can see so far in the log file of my program running, so I left it as is:

Should I check in my code that solution does not contain _Z before calling radnormal on it?  Is this a bug or known limitation?

 > restart;
 > interface(version);

 > Physics:-Version();

 > sol:=1/6*(-a^3 - 3*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)*a^2 + 6*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^2*a + 8*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)*(RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)*a^4 + 4*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^2*a^3 + 4*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^3*a^2 + 4*a^3 + 12*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)*a^2 - 24*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^2*a - 32*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^3 - 108*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2))) + 54*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2))^(1/3) + 1/6*(4*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^2 + 2*a*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2) + a^2)/(-a^3 - 3*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)*a^2 + 6*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^2*a + 8*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)*(RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)*a^4 + 4*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^2*a^3 + 4*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^3*a^2 + 4*a^3 + 12*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)*a^2 - 24*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^2*a - 32*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2)^3 - 108*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2))) + 54*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2))^(1/3) - 1/6*a + 1/3*RootOf(4*_Z^2 - 4*_Z*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + 2*a*_Z + (8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(2/3) - a*(8*_Z^3 + 6*_Z^2*a - 3*_Z*a^2 - a^3 + 3*sqrt(3)*sqrt(-4*_Z^4*a^2 - 4*_Z^3*a^3 - _Z^2*a^4 + 32*_Z^4 + 24*_Z^3*a - 12*_Z^2*a^2 - 4*_Z*a^3 + 108*_Z^2) + 54*_Z)^(1/3) + a^2):

Error, (in RootOf) _Z occurs but is not the dependent variable

 >

## 2024.1 freezing or partial lockout...

I have had this a few times this week since updating to 2024.1 on Windows 10.

I get sudden freezes in a worksheet. The !!! button greys out. The ! button is ok, so the worksheet can be run by using ctrl A and click !

Has anyone else experienced this?

## Piecewise function defining...

Dear maple user,for defining the piecewise function please rectify this

h:z-> piecewise(do+Lo<z<do+4*Lo+0.3,    1-cos(2*pi*(z-L), other wise 1)

## ID Optimal System...

I have four symmetries as

1] \frac{\partial}{\partial t)

2] \frac{\partial}{\partial x)

3] \frac{\partial}{\partial y)

4] 2t \frac{\partial}{\partial t)+x\frac{\partial}{\partial x)+y\frac{\partial}{\partial y)-2u\frac{\partial}{\partial u)

Kindly help me out to find 1D optimal system with structural constants.

I will be greatful.

## Export Array/Table/Dataframe of data to JPG...

I have a Dataframe of data, although I assume this question applies to any type of rTable-like structure.

What is a simple/elegant way to export the image of the data to a JPG file?  I would be happy to see it in the format when I ask it to print the Dataframe, or when I use DocumentTools:-Tabulate.

## Export an Array of Plots...

I have created two graphs*, each is a combination of multiple plots. From this, I use "plots:-display" to create an array of the two graphs.  I wish to export this array of graphs to a jpg file. Is this possible?  (Yes, I can export each graph, but I would like it combined in the array image that Maple displays.)

* Why the asterisk: I make two plots. When I combine them through the plots:-display procedure, what type of output is produced? I've called it a graph. The help implies the output is a plot array. However, that is different from displaying an array of graphs through plots: display (Array([plot1, plot2])). Correct?

## Challenges with SU(2) Field Strength Tensor Calcul...

Context of My Code:

I want to determine the SU(2) field strength tensor for a specific field configuration(later the equations of motion). I have managed to implement the covariant derivative and the gauge field, but now I am encountering problems with the field strength tensor. When substituting the definitions of my gauge field (7) and my covariant derivative (13) into my field strength tensor (14), the following problems occur:

1. The derivatives do not act on f(r) or r (r should be the radial component of my coordinate system).
2. The unit vectors are not explicitly multiplied together. Mixed terms should vanish and quadratic terms should result in one.

I am not even sure if I can properly form F[]^2 due to my definition in (4). I have seen in the setup that there are SU(2) indices, but I couldn't find anything helpful on how to handle this. Is it better to use SU(2) indexing?

It would be nice if someone could tell me why my terms are not simplifying or direct me to where I need to look to understand it.

Here is my code:

SU(2)_Field_Strength.mw

## How can I extract an excellent approximate for pol...

Dear All,

I have a polynomial in terms of time. I know that based on the nature of the problem, the real function that governs this problem is the sum of exponential functions with a negative power, for example, in the form of alpha[0]+add(alpha[i]*exp(-beta[i]*t), i=1.. 5).

Can you help me if there is a method that can be used to obtain these exponential functions using following polynomial?

The polynomial function is as follow:

f:=0.020399949322360296902872908942 + 0.0261353198432118595103693714851*t^3 + 0.0240968505875842806805439681431*t^4 + 0.0148456155621193706595799212802*t^5 + 0.0239969764160351203722354728376*t^2 + 0.0204278458408370651586217048716*t - 0.00450853634927256388740864146173*t^6 - 0.0355389767483113696513996149731*t^7 - 0.0766669789661906882315038416910*t^8 - 0.120843030849135239578151569663*t^9 - 0.153280689906711146639066606024*t^10 - 0.150288711858517536713273977277*t^11 - 0.0808171080937786380164380347445*t^12 + 0.0872390654213369913348407061899*t^13 + 0.373992140377042586618283139889*t^14 + 0.766807288928470485618700282187*t^15 + 1.19339994493571167326973251788*t^16 + 1.49476369302534328383069681700*t^17 + 1.41015598591182237492637420929*t^18 + 0.593451797299651247527539427688*t^19 - 1.31434443870999971750661332301*t^20;

Best wishes

## non-linear system...

I have this problem with this system of equations, when I solve the 13x13 system it does not give me any solution, neither giving seed values ​​nor placing full digits. The exercise is solved and I tried to assume close values ​​and it doesn't work for me, it leaves everything expressed with the fsolve command.

## Why does the interface command performs differentl...

Maple formats output depending on typesetting options "extened" and "standard" for the GUI (or interface). An example taken from

restart;
ts_standard:=proc(k::anything)
interface(typesetting=standard):
print(k);
interface(typesetting=extended):
NULL;
end proc:
k:=3/8*ln(55/52)+sin(x)+3/4*exp(x);
3   /55\            3
k := - ln|--| + sin(x) + - exp(x)
8   \52/            4

ts_standard(k);

Why is the input two times returned and why one time as a list?
Somehow the first interface statement is responsible for that.

I am only interested in the reformated input inside the list.
Is it possible to fix the code?

Other observation with typesetting=standard:

restart;
interface(typesetting=standard);
expr:=cos(x)^2;
((x->x)=combine[trig])(expr);

((x->x)=combine[trig])(expr);#subsequent call
2   1            1
cos(x)  = - cos(2 x) + -
2            2

(with Maple 2024.1 this only accurs in Math-1D)
but

restart;
expr:=cos(x)^2;
interface(typesetting=standard);
((x->x)=combine[trig])(expr);
2
expr := cos(x)

extended

2   1            1
cos(x)  = - cos(2 x) + -
2            2

## Interrupting an operation: What does it mean if th...

GUI state after interupting with :

After switching to untitled 17 and back to test_timeout:

Sometimes it is necessary to switch back and forth twice.

Does this mean that the kernel did not receive the interupt?

## 3d vector addition with angles ...

Hello Everyone

I created a file to sum up 5 vectors and display them in 3d space. (see below)

I would like to optimize my input so that I input the total length of the vector and the angle in the x-y plane and the angle in the x-z plane.

At the top of the document there is an idea from a different pots how to do it with 2d vectors but I can't get it to work with 3d vectors.

Any ideas?